Dataframe 0.11 Help


The Kotlin DataFrame library supports CSV, TSV, JSON, XLS and XLSX, and Apache Arrow input formats.

The .read() function automatically detects the input format based on file extension and content:"input.csv")

The input string can be a file path or URL.

Read from CSV

To read a CSV file, use the .readCSV() function.

To read a CSV file from a file:

import DataFrame.readCSV("input.csv") // Alternatively DataFrame.readCSV(File("input.csv"))

To read a CSV file from a URL:

import DataFrame.readCSV(URL(""))

Specify delimiter

By default, CSV files are parsed using , as the delimiter. To specify a custom delimiter, use the delimiter argument:

val df = DataFrame.readCSV( file, delimiter = '|', header = listOf("A", "B", "C", "D"), parserOptions = ParserOptions(nullStrings = setOf("not assigned")) )

Column type inference from CSV

Column types are inferred from the CSV data. Suppose that the CSV from the previous example had the following content:












not assigned





Then the DataFrame schema we get is:

A: Int B: String C: Double D: Boolean?

DataFrame tries to parse columns as JSON, so when reading the following table with JSON object in column D:







We get this data schema where D is ColumnGroup with 2 children columns:

A: Int D: B: Int C: Int

For a column where values are lists of JSON values:







A: Int G: * B: Int C: Int D: Int

Work with locale-specific numbers

Sometimes columns in your CSV can be interpreted differently depending on your system locale.




Here a comma can be decimal or thousands separator, thus different values. You can deal with it in two ways:

  1. Provide locale as a parser option

val df = DataFrame.readCSV( file, parserOptions = ParserOptions(locale = Locale.UK), )
  1. Disable type inference for specific column and convert it yourself

val df = DataFrame.readCSV( file, colTypes = mapOf("colName" to ColType.String) )

Read from JSON

To read a JSON file, use the .readJSON() function. JSON files can be read from a file or a URL.

Note that after reading a JSON with a complex structure, you can get hierarchical DataFrame: DataFrame with ColumnGroups and FrameColumn s.

To read a JSON file from a file:

val df = DataFrame.readJson(file)

To read a JSON file from a URL:


Column type inference from JSON

Type inference for JSON is much simpler than for CSV. JSON string literals are always supposed to have String type. Number literals take different Number kinds. Boolean literals are converted to Boolean.

Let's take a look at the following JSON:

[ { "A": "1", "B": 1, "C": 1.0, "D": true }, { "A": "2", "B": 2, "C": 1.1, "D": null }, { "A": "3", "B": 3, "C": 1, "D": false }, { "A": "4", "B": 4, "C": 1.3, "D": true } ]

We can read it from file:

val df = DataFrame.readJson(file)

The corresponding DataFrame schema is:

A: String B: Int C: Number D: Boolean?

Column A has String type because all values are string literals, no implicit conversion is performed. Column C has Number type because it's the least common type for Int and Double.

JSON parsing options

Manage type clashes

By default, if a type clash occurs when reading JSON, a new column group is created consisting of: "value", "array", and any number of object properties:

"value" will be set to the value of the JSON element if it's a primitive, else it will be null.
"array" will be set to the array of values if the json element is an array, else it will be [].
If the json element is an object, then each property will spread out to its own column in the group, else these columns will be null.

In this case typeClashTactic = JSON.TypeClashTactic.ARRAY_AND_VALUE_COLUMNS.

For example:

[ { "a": "text" }, { "a": { "b": 2 } }, { "a": [ 6, 7, 8 ] } ]

will be read like (including null and [] values):

⌌----------------------------------------------⌍ | | a:{b:Int?, value:String?, array:List<Int>}| |--|-------------------------------------------| | 0| {b:null, value:"text", array:[] }| | 1| {b:2, value:null, array:[] }| | 2| {b:null, value:null, array:[6, 7, 8]}| ⌎----------------------------------------------⌏

This makes it more convenient to work with the data, but it can be confusing if you're not expecting it or if you just need the type to be an Any.

For this case, you can set typeClashTactic = JSON.TypeClashTactic.ANY_COLUMNS to get the following:

⌌-------------⌍ | | a:Any| |--|----------| | 0| "text"| | 1| { b:2 }| | 2| [6, 7, 8]| ⌎-------------⌏

This option is also possible to set in the Gradle- and KSP plugin by providing jsonOptions.

Specify Key/Value Paths

If you have a JSON like:

{ "dogs": { "fido": { "age": 3, "breed": "poodle" }, "spot": { "age": 5, "breed": "labrador" }, "rex": { "age": 2, "breed": "golden retriever" }, "lucky": { ... }, "rover": { ... }, "max": { ... }, "buster": { ... }, ... }, "cats": { ... } }

You will get a column for each dog, which becomes an issue when you have a lot of dogs. This issue is especially noticeable when generating data schemas from JSON, as you might run out of memory when doing that due to the sheer number of generated interfaces. Instead, you can use keyValuePaths to specify paths to the objects that should be read as key value frame columns.

This can be the difference between:

⌌---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------... | | dogs:{fido:{age:Int, breed:String}, spot:{age:Int, breed:String}, rex:{age:Int, breed:String}, lucky:{age:Int, breed... |--|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------... | 0| { fido:{ age:3, breed:poodle }, spot:{ age:5, breed:labrador }, rex:{ age:2, breed:golden retriever }, lucky:{ age:1, breed:poodle }, rov... ⌎---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...


⌌------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------⌍ | | dogs:[key:String, value:{age:Int, breed:String}]| cats:[key:String, value:{age:Int, breed:String}]| |--|-------------------------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------| | 0| [7 x 2]| [6 x 2]| ⌎------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------⌏

with dogs looking like

⌌-------------------------------------------------⌍ | | key:String| value:{age:Int, breed:String}| |--|-----------|----------------------------------| | 0| fido| { age:3, breed:poodle }| | 1| spot| { age:5, breed:labrador }| | 2| rex| { age:2, breed:golden retriever }| | 3| lucky| { age:1, breed:poodle }| | 4| rover| { age:3, breed:labrador }| | 5| max| { age:2, breed:golden retriever }| | 6| buster| { age:1, breed:poodle }| ⌎-------------------------------------------------⌏

(The results are wrapped in a FrameColumn instead of a ColumnGroup since lengths between "cats" and "dogs" can vary, among other reasons.)

To specify the paths, you can use the JsonPath class:

DataFrame.readJsonStr( text = myJson, keyValuePaths = listOf( JsonPath().append("dogs"), // which will result in '$["dogs"]' JsonPath().append("cats"), // which will result in '$["cats"]' ), )

Note: For the KSP plugin, the JsonPath class is not available, so you will have to use the String version of the paths instead. For example: jsonOptions = JsonOptions(keyValuePaths = ["""$""", """$[*]["versions"]"""]). Only the bracket notation of json path is supported, as well as just double quotes, arrays, and wildcards.

For more examples, see the "examples/json" module.

Read from Excel

Before you can read data from Excel, add the following dependency:


To read an Excel spreadsheet, use the .readExcel() function. Excel spreadsheets can be read from a file or a URL. Supported Excel spreadsheet formats are: xls, xlsx.

To read an Excel spreadsheet from a file:

val df = DataFrame.readExcel(file)

To read an Excel spreadsheet from a URL:


Cell type inference from Excel

Cells representing dates will be read as kotlinx.datetime.LocalDateTime. Cells with number values, including whole numbers such as "100", or calculated formulas will be read as Double.

Sometimes cells can have the wrong format in an Excel file. For example, you expect to read a column of String:

IDS 100 <-- Intended to be String, but has wrong cell format in original .xlsx file A100 B100 C100

You will get column of Serializable instead (common parent for Double and String).

You can fix it using the .convert() function:

val df = dataFrameOf("IDS")(100.0, "A100", "B100", "C100") val df1 = df.convert("IDS").with(Infer.Type) { if (it is Double) { it.toLong().toString() } else { it } } df1["IDS"].type() shouldBe typeOf<String>()

Read Apache Arrow formats

Before you can read data from Apache Arrow format, add the following dependency:


To read Apache Arrow formats, use the .readArrowFeather() function:

val df = DataFrame.readArrowFeather(file)

DataFrame supports reading Arrow interprocess streaming format and Arrow random access format from raw Channel (ReadableByteChannel for streaming and SeekableByteChannel for random access), InputStream, File or ByteArray.

Last modified: 21 September 2023