Job

interface Job : Element (source)

A background job. Conceptually, a job is a cancellable thing with a life-cycle that culminates in its completion.

Jobs can be arranged into parent-child hierarchies where cancellation of a parent leads to immediate cancellation of all its children recursively. Failure of a child with an exception other than CancellationException immediately cancels its parent and, consequently, all its other children. This behavior can be customized using SupervisorJob.

The most basic instances of Job interface are created like this:

Conceptually, an execution of a job does not produce a result value. Jobs are launched solely for their side-effects. See Deferred interface for a job that produces a result.

Job states

A job has the following states:

State isActive isCompleted isCancelled
New (optional initial state) false false false
Active (default initial state) true false false
Completing (transient state) true false false
Cancelling (transient state) false false true
Cancelled (final state) false true true
Completed (final state) false true false

Usually, a job is created in the active state (it is created and started). However, coroutine builders that provide an optional start parameter create a coroutine in the new state when this parameter is set to CoroutineStart.LAZY. Such a job can be made active by invoking start or join.

A job is active while the coroutine is working or until CompletableJob is completed, or until it fails or cancelled.

Failure of an active job with an exception makes it cancelling. A job can be cancelled at any time with cancel function that forces it to transition to the cancelling state immediately. The job becomes cancelled when it finishes executing its work and all its children complete.

Completion of an active coroutine’s body or a call to CompletableJob.complete transitions the job to the completing state. It waits in the completing state for all its children to complete before transitioning to the completed state. Note that completing state is purely internal to the job. For an outside observer a completing job is still active, while internally it is waiting for its children.

                                          wait children
    +-----+ start  +--------+ complete   +-------------+  finish  +-----------+
    | New | -----> | Active | ---------> | Completing  | -------> | Completed |
    +-----+        +--------+            +-------------+          +-----------+
                     |  cancel / fail       |
                     |     +----------------+
                     |     |
                     V     V
                 +------------+                           finish  +-----------+
                 | Cancelling | --------------------------------> | Cancelled |
                 +------------+                                   +-----------+

A Job instance in the coroutineContext represents the coroutine itself.

Cancellation cause

A coroutine job is said to complete exceptionally when its body throws an exception; a CompletableJob is completed exceptionally by calling CompletableJob.completeExceptionally. An exceptionally completed job is cancelled and the corresponding exception becomes the cancellation cause of the job.

Normal cancellation of a job is distinguished from its failure by the type of this exception that caused its cancellation. A coroutine that threw CancellationException is considered to be cancelled normally. If a cancellation cause is a different exception type, then the job is considered to have failed. When a job has failed, then its parent gets cancelled with the exception of the same type, thus ensuring transparency in delegating parts of the job to its children.

Note, that cancel function on a job only accepts CancellationException as a cancellation cause, thus calling cancel always results in a normal cancellation of a job, which does not lead to cancellation of its parent. This way, a parent can cancel its own children (cancelling all their children recursively, too) without cancelling itself.

Concurrency and synchronization

All functions on this interface and on all interfaces derived from it are thread-safe and can be safely invoked from concurrent coroutines without external synchronization.

Not stable for inheritance

Job interface and all its derived interfaces are not stable for inheritance in 3rd party libraries, as new methods might be added to this interface in the future, but is stable for use.

Types

Key

companion object Key : Key<Job>

Key for Job instance in the coroutine context.

Properties

children

abstract val children: Sequence<Job>

Returns a sequence of this job’s children.

isActive

abstract val isActive: Boolean

Returns true when this job is active – it was already started and has not completed nor was cancelled yet. The job that is waiting for its children to complete is still considered to be active if it was not cancelled nor failed.

isCancelled

abstract val isCancelled: Boolean

Returns true if this job was cancelled for any reason, either by explicit invocation of cancel or because it had failed or its child or parent was cancelled. In the general case, it does not imply that the job has already completed, because it may still be finishing whatever it was doing and waiting for its children to complete.

isCompleted

abstract val isCompleted: Boolean

Returns true when this job has completed for any reason. A job that was cancelled or failed and has finished its execution is also considered complete. Job becomes complete only after all its children complete.

onJoin

abstract val onJoin: SelectClause0

Clause for select expression of join suspending function that selects when the job is complete. This clause never fails, even if the job completes exceptionally.

Functions

cancel

abstract fun cancel(
    cause: CancellationException? = null
): Unit

Cancels this job with an optional cancellation cause. A cause can be used to specify an error message or to provide other details on the cancellation reason for debugging purposes. See Job documentation for full explanation of cancellation machinery.

invokeOnCompletion

abstract fun invokeOnCompletion(
    handler: CompletionHandler
): DisposableHandle

Registers handler that is synchronously invoked once on completion of this job. When the job is already complete, then the handler is immediately invoked with the job’s exception or cancellation cause or null. Otherwise, the handler will be invoked once when this job is complete.

join

abstract suspend fun join(): Unit

Suspends the coroutine until this job is complete. This invocation resumes normally (without exception) when the job is complete for any reason and the Job of the invoking coroutine is still active. This function also starts the corresponding coroutine if the Job was still in new state.

start

abstract fun start(): Boolean

Starts coroutine related to this job (if any) if it was not started yet. The result true if this invocation actually started coroutine or false if it was already started or completed.

Extension Properties

isActive

Returns true when the Job of the coroutine in this context is still active (has not completed and was not cancelled yet).

job

Retrieves the current Job instance from the given CoroutineContext or throws IllegalStateException if no job is present in the context.

Extension Functions

cancel

fun Job.cancel(
    message: String,
    cause: Throwable? = null
): Unit

Cancels current job, including all its children with a specified diagnostic error message. A cause can be specified to provide additional details on a cancellation reason for debugging purposes.

cancel

fun CoroutineContext.cancel(
    cause: CancellationException? = null
): Unit

Cancels Job of this context with an optional cancellation cause. See Job.cancel for details.

cancelAndJoin

suspend fun Job.cancelAndJoin(): Unit

Cancels the job and suspends the invoking coroutine until the cancelled job is complete.

cancelChildren

fun Job.cancelChildren(
    cause: CancellationException? = null
): Unit

Cancels all children jobs of this coroutine using Job.cancel for all of them with an optional cancellation cause. Unlike Job.cancel on this job as a whole, the state of this job itself is not affected.

ensureActive

fun Job.ensureActive(): Unit

Ensures that current job is active. If the job is no longer active, throws CancellationException. If the job was cancelled, thrown exception contains the original cancellation cause.

Inheritors

CompletableJob

interface CompletableJob : Job

A job that can be completed using complete function. It is returned by Job() and SupervisorJob() constructor functions.

Deferred

interface Deferred<out T> : Job

Deferred value is a non-blocking cancellable future — it is a Job with a result.

NonCancellable

object NonCancellable : Job

A non-cancelable job that is always active. It is designed for withContext function to prevent cancellation of code blocks that need to be executed without cancellation.